After examining various theories of learning, the author concludes:
“...most of the investigations support the dual-coding theory that more is better: multimedia auditory/verbal and visual/pictorial stimuli increase memory, comprehension, understanding, and deeper learning than either stimulus by itself...This is consistent with the picture superiority effect” (Berk, 2009, p.5).
Of the twelve generic techniques that the author proposes for using video, both “illustrating a concept” (Berk, 2009, p.10), “serving as a stimulus” (Berk, 2009, p.11), “providing a good or bad application to critique” (Berk, 2009,p.12), and “motivate and inspire” (Berk, 2009,p.13) seem very relevant to peer modelling videos.
Similarly, Duverger and Steffes could see the special benefits of video, specifically YouTube, as a learning ‘primer’:
“Videos incorporating emotionally intensive content, such as music and imagery, should induce mood states and increase arousal and attention” (Duverger, 2012, p.54)
In Enfield’s study of blended learning of multimedia students at CSUN (Enfield, 2013) the author found, not unsurprisingly, that students were less engaged when they couldn’t stream videos easily - “one student suggested YouTube or Vimeo would be appreciated” (Enfield, 2013, p.21) Just a few years ago, teachers were presenting video via tapes and DVDs, which invariably meant whole class and once only viewings. However, online, on-demand, video revolutionizes the use of video, particularly where students are working independently, on various devices, and any time. It makes a blended classroom a very realistic proposition. YouTube, at the moment, seems to be the platform of choice for serving this video, both because of its streaming technology, and also general student perceptions.
These perceptions were explored by Buzzetto-More in a 2014 study of undergraduates.
In the author’s study a course was designed that featured a heavy use of YouTube videos, and this was given either entirely online, in person, or blended.
This is not least because life online is natural to most young people today. Anderson et al (Anderson, 2018) found that 89% of young teens were online at least several times a day.
And of all the social media platforms, YouTube was the most popular:
By 2018 (Moghavvemi, 2018) a similar study surveyed university students and found that most students used YouTube, and 31% used it more than one hour a day (Moghavvemi, 2018, p.4) They also found that “71% agreed that they use YouTube for academic learning; 76% to learn how to solve problems; 77% to get answers for some questions; 84% to learn new things; 83% to watch videos suggested by friends; 70.5% believed that they can learn a lot by watching videos (related to the subject) instead of reading a book” (Moghavvemi, 2018, p.4). They conclude that most students’ familiarity with YouTube and their perception of its effectiveness make it important to be used as a complementary tool.
Two years later, Lynch reported on a variety of recent surveys, including one from Pearson Education that shows that textbooks have been gradually losing favour with students compared with YouTube. For example, in 60% of Millennials preferred learning textbooks over YouTube, whereas only 47% of Generation Z preferred textbooks. The author also highlights how even some education boards have their own YouTube channel (Lynch, 2020)
Aldred, M [Mathew Aldred] (2019a, November 2019 ) AJ on the making of Excavations #1 Retrieved from: https://youtu.be/1mtoYbR6_Bg
Aldred, M [Mathew Aldred] (2019b, December 2019) Landon’s Art Project
Retrieved from: https://youtu.be/hfRQHht73mc
Aldred, M [Mathew Aldred] (2019c, October 2019) Peer Modelling (Transforming Pedagogy for Emerging Technologies Project)
Retrieved from: https://youtu.be/-NspjqshESs
Aldred, M [Mathew Aldred] (2019d, July 2019) Voices we need to hear
Retrieved from: https://youtu.be/vTwaFVexodw
Aldred, M [Mathew Aldred] (2019e, June 2019) Making a Blended Visual Art Classroom with YouTube
Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xFgiCY0Rg4Q
Aldred, M [Mathew Aldred] (2020a, February 2020 ) Jackie’s “Dreams & Nightmares”
Retrieved from: https://youtu.be/Tc6Q0v4RETI
Anderson, M., & Jiang, J. (2018). Teens, social media & technology 2018. Pew Research Center, 31.
Berk, Ronald A. (2009). “Multimedia Teaching with Video Clips: TV, Movies, YouTube, and mtvU in the College Classroom.” International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning 5 (1): 1–21.
Buzzetto-More, N. A. (2014). An examination of undergraduate student’s perceptions and predilections of the use of YouTube in the teaching and learning process. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects, 10(1), 17-32.
Duverger, P., & Steffes, E. M. (2012). Using YouTube Videos as a Primer to Affect Academic Content Retention. Metropolitan Universities, 23(2), 51-66.
Enfield, J. (2013). Looking at the impact of the flipped classroom model of instruction on undergraduate multimedia students at CSUN. TechTrends, 57(6), 14-27.
Lynch, M (2020) YouTube Is Replacing Textbooks In Classrooms Across America. The Tech Edvocate 8 May 2020
Moghavvemi, S., Sulaiman, A., Jaafar, N. I., & Kasem, N. (2018). Social media as a complementary learning tool for teaching and learning: The case of youtube. The International Journal of Management Education, 16(1), 37-42.